Russian Journal of Cardiology 2020, 25 (S3) Education

Комментарии

ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY: CONTROLLING THE PROCESSES OF REPLICATIVE CELL SENESCENCE

Dudinskaya E. N.1, Machekhina L. V.1, Eruslanova K. A.1, Dogotar O. A.2, Ryltseva L. P.2, Lyzlova N. Yu.2, Shchepin N. A.2, Kotovskaya Yu. V.1, Tkacheva O. N.1

Abstract

The review includes data over the past 20 years on the mechanisms of the influence of hypertension and related interdependent conditions, such as insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress on the vascular ageing. The review also discusses

modern concepts of the interaction of biological and vascular aging, as well as possible ways of their reversal. The central indicators of biological aging in this review are telomere length and telomerase activity. The article discusses antihypertensive therapy as a possible way to slow down both vascular and biological aging, and describes the results of modern studies on the effect of various antihypertensives, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, sartans and others, on the telomeres.

Key words: aging, telomeres, telomerase, hypertension, insulin resistance, oxidative stress.

Relationships and Activities: none.

1Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Russian Clinical and Research Center of Gerontology, Moscow; 2Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

Dudinskaya E. N.* ORCID: 0000-0001-7891-6850, Machekhina L. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-2028-3939, Eruslanova K. A. ORCID: 0000-0003-0048-268X, Dogotar O. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-2349-8740, Ryltseva L. P. ORCID: 0000-0001-6153-360X, Lyzlova N. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0003-0140-3509, Shchepin N. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-4089-3144, Kotovskaya Yu. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-1628-5093, Tkacheva O. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-4193-688X.

*Corresponding author: katharina.gin@gmail.com

Received: 15.06.2020

Revision Received: 21.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Dudinskaya E. N., Machekhina L. V., Eruslanova K. A., Dogotar O. A., Ryltseva L. P., Lyzlova N. Yu., Shchepin N. A., Kotovskaya Yu. V., Tkacheva O. N. Antihypertensive therapy: controlling the processes of replicative cell senescence. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):3974. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-3974

CONTRIBUTION OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY TO THE DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOMYOPATHIES AND ATHLETIC HEART SYNDROME

Chumakova O. S.1,2, Isaeva M. Yu.2, Koroleva O. S.1, Zateyshchikov D. A.1,2,3

Abstract

The review describes the role of electrocardiography in the diagnosis of the most common nonischemic myocardial diseases associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, especially in youth sports.

Key words: electrocardiography, cardiomyopathies, athletic heart syndrome, sudden death.

Relationships and Activities. This study was carried out within the grant from the Russian Science Foundation (№ 20-15-00353).

1Central State Medical Academy, Administrative Directorate of the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow; 2Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Specialized Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow; 3City Clinical Hospital № 51, Moscow, Russia.

Chumakova O. S.* ORCID: 0000-0003-2373-1183, Isaeva M. Yu. ORCID: 0000-0003-3548-9937, Koroleva O. S. ORCID: 0000-0001-5646-796X, Zateyshchikov D. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-7065-2045.

*Corresponding author: chumakovaolga@bk.ru

Received: 16.07.2020

Revision Received: 31.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Chumakova O. S., Isaeva M. Yu., Koroleva O. S., Zateyshchikov D. A. Contribution of electrocardiography to the diagnosis of cardiomyopathies and athletic heart syndrome. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4023. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4023

COMPREHENSIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF THE RIGHT VENTRICULAR PERFORMANCE: BEYOND TAPSE AND FRACTIONAL AREA CHANGE

Elena Surkova1, Attila Kovacs2

Abstract

Right ventricular (RV) performance is an important predictor of adverse events and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Echocardiography is the firstchoice imaging modality for the assessment of RV systolic function, however conventional two-dimensional echocardiographic parameters have important limitations and under specific conditions poorly correlate with the gold-standard imaging modality, cardiac magnetic resonance. Recent advances in novel echocardiography techniques, including three-dimensional echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography opened new era in RV imaging enabling more accurate and reproducible assessment of RV performance thus providing deeper insight into the pathophysiology of this intriguing cardiac chamber. In this comprehensive review authors summarize the state-of-the-art echocardiographic approach to the assessment of the RV systolic function with specific emphasis on modern techniques, their advantages, limitations and pitfalls in the various clinical settings.

Key words: echocardiography, right ventricle, speckle tracking strain echocardiography, systolic function, three-dimensional echocardiography.

Relationships and Activities: none.

1Royal Brompton Hospital, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Elena Surkova* — Senior Clinical Fellow in Adult Congenital Heart Disease and Echocardiography, Department of Echocardiography, ORCID: 0000-0001-5334-8551, Attila Kovács — Assistant Professor, ORCID: 0000-0003-2320-6434.

*Corresponding author: E. Surkova@rbht.nhs.uk

Received: 18.08.2020

Revision Received: 26.08.2020

Accepted: 28.08.2020

For citation: Surkova E, Kovács A. Comprehensive Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Ventricular Performance: beyond TAPSE and fractional area change. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4067. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4067

DIASTOLIC STRESS TEST IN THE PREOPERATIVE NON-CARDIAC SURGERY EXAMINATION

Dzhioeva O. N., Drapkina O. M.

Abstract

Preoperative examination of patients undergoing high-risk elective non-cardiac surgery requires identifying factors associated with both the type of surgery and comorbidity profile of each patient. Determination of clinically significant echocardiographic changes, even without severe symptoms, can contribute to a change in management or revision of scheduled date and surgery tactics. The

aspects of defining echocardiographic criteria for potential postoperative cardiovascular complications, especially in asymptomatic patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, are an important clinical problem. The diastolic stress test, a relatively new type of exercise testing, is currently an additional diagnostic tool to detect heart failure in patients without reduced ejection fraction. The prospects of using this method before non-cardiac surgery in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction is discussed in this article.

Key words: perioperative risk stratification, non-cardiac surgery, echocardiography, diastolic stress test.

Relationships and Activities: none.

National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, Moscow, Russia.

Dzhioeva O. N.* ORCID: 0000-0002-5384-3795, Drapkina O. M. ORCID: 0000-0002-4453-8430.

*Corresponding author: dzhioevaon@gmail.com

Received: 29.06.2020

Revision Received: 15.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Dzhioeva O. N., Drapkina O. M. Diastolic stress test in the preoperative non-cardiac surgery examination. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):3986. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-3986

FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION

Barbarash O. L., Kashtalap V. V., Shibanova I. A., Kokov A. N.

Abstract

The review article summarizes the results of studies on the pathogenesis, as well as the clinical and prognostic role of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in coronary artery disease. The modern views of cardiologists, surgeons and general practitioners on the comorbidities manifested by CCA are presented. The modern ideas on the relationship between atherogenesis, CCA and bone resorption are described; groups of informative biological markers reflecting the severity of process are identified. Modern diagnostic methods for the detection and study of CCA are highlighted, their advantages and limitations are indicated. The effect of

atherosclerosis treatment on coronary calcification and osteopenia are discussed. Further prospects and lines of research in this area are presented.

Key words: coronary calcification, mechanisms of arterial calcification, diagnosis of arterial calcification, myocardial revascularization.

Relationships and Activities. The study was conducted as part of the fundamental theme № 0546-2019-003 “Multifocal atherosclerosis and comorbidities. Features of diagnosis, risk management in a large industrial region of Siberia”, approved by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation.

Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, Russia.

Barbarash O. L. ORCID: 0000-0002-4642-3610, Kashtalap V. V.* ORCID: 0000-0003-3729-616X, Shibanova I. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8418-8140, Kokov A. N. ORCID: 0000-0002-7573-0636.

*Corresponding author: v_kash@mail.ru

Received: 09.07.2020

Revision Received: 23.07.2020

Accepted: 30.07.2020

For citation: Barbarash O. L., Kashtalap V. V., Shibanova I. A., Kokov A. N. Fundamental and practical aspects of coronary artery calcification. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4005. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4005

TICAGRELOR IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: A ROLE IN IMPROVING PROGNOSIS

Novikova T. N.

Abstract

The aim of this review was to study the evidence base for the efficacy and safety of the P2Y12 receptor blocker ticagrelor in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in patients with stable coronary artery disease and high and moderate risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Currently, the mortality rate of this category of patients remains high. Long-term dual antithrombotic therapy allows to improve the prognosis. Ticagrelor at a low dose (60 mg 2 times a day) in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in randomized clinical trials and an actual clinical practice has shown a beneficial effect on prognosis in stable coronary artery disease.

Key words: stable coronary artery disease, high and moderate risk of cardiovascular events, dual antiplatelet therapy, ticagrelor.

Relationships and Activities: none.

I. I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Novikova T. N. ORCID: 0000-0003-4655-0297.

Corresponding author: novikova-tn@mail.ru

Received: 02.09.2020

Revision Received: 04.09.2020

Accepted: 10.09.2020

For citation: Novikova T. N. Ticagrelor in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a role in improving prognosis. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4094. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4094

INHERITED THROMBOPHILIA AND VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM: TESTING RULES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

Zotova I. V.1,2, Zateyshchikov D. A.1,3

Abstract

Testing for inherited thrombophilia in patients with venous thromboembolism is one of the most common genetic testing options prescribed by clinicians. Despite the large evidence base for the relationship of hereditary hemostasis disorders with the risk of venous thrombosis, most patients should not be tested. Performing tests in the acute phase of thrombosis or during anticoagulant

therapy leads to erroneous results. The choice of anticoagulant therapy regimen and its duration are not specified by the presence of hereditary thrombophilia. The test results can be useful for increasing medication adherence of patient, determining the cause of thrombosis, especially at a young age or in atypical localization.

Key words: venous thromboembolism, inherited thrombophilia, anticoagulants.

Relationships and Activities: none.

1Central State Medical Academy, Administrative Directorate of the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow; 2City Clinical Hospital № 17, Moscow; 3City Clinical Hospital № 51, Moscow, Russia.

Zotova I. V.* ORCID: 0000-0001-8309-8231, Zateyshchikov D. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-7065-2045.

*Corresponding author: irinazotova@bk.ru

Received: 16.07.2020

Revision Received: 23.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Zotova I. V., Zateyshchikov D. A. Inherited thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism: testing rules in clinical practice. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4024. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4024

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF CARDIAC TROPONINS: MECHANISMS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Chaulin A. M.1,2, Duplyakova P. D.1,2, Duplyakov D. V.1,2

Abstract

Modern laboratory methods for determining biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are highly sensitive and can detect almost single molecules in human biological fluids, significantly speeding up and improving the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, in this case, there is a decrease in specificity and it is necessary to take into account a number of additional factors that may affect the result of the study. Recent studies have shown that circadian rhythms (CR) are among these factors. This review article is devoted to the discussion of recently discovered CR of cardiac troponins (CT). A number of articles reported that, both in healthy

people and in patients with a number of chronic diseases, CT concentrations change during the day. Given that modern algorithms for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) are based on serial studies (0-1 h and 0-3 h) of blood serum, and the values of CT in the blood serum for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) for this period of time are only a few ng/l, the CT CR can to some extent affect the accuracy of MI diagnosis. Thus, natural physiological changes in the concentration of CT during the day can be mistakenly interpreted as diagnostically significant deviations and lead to an erroneous interpretation of laboratory test results.

Key words: cardiac troponins, circadian rhythms, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction.

Relationships and Activities: none.

1Samara Regional Cardiology Dispensary, Samara; 2Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia.

Chaulin A. M.* ORCID: 0000-0002-2712-0227, Duplyakova P. D. ORCID: 0000-0003-2773-1682, Duplyakov D. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-6453-2976.

*Corresponding author: alekseymichailovich22976@gmail.com

Received: 14.08.2020

Revision Received: 21.08.2020

Accepted: 28.08.2020

For citation: Chaulin A. M., Duplyakova P. D., Duplyakov D. V. Circadian rhythms of cardiac troponins: mechanisms and clinical significance. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4061. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4061

SUBANALYSIS OF THE AUGUSTUS TRIAL

Pavlova T. V., Duplyakova P. D., Shkaeva O. V., Krivova S. P.

Abstract

Comorbidity is a common feature of a modern patient. The combination of atrial fibrillation (AF) and various types of coronary artery disease is widespread in actual clinical practice. In such cases, additional pathophysiological mechanisms appear that worsen the clinical course and patient’s prognosis. The management of AF patients who have undergone acute coronary syndrome and/or percutaneous coronary intervention is a challenging problem, which can be solved by large-scale clinical trials. The AUGUSTUS randomized trial with a two-by-two factorial design proved that full-dose apixaban is superior in safety to the vitamin K antagonist

warfarin, while not inferior in effectiveness. This pattern has been preserved in several important subanalysis on stent thrombosis, hospitalization rates, and conservative management of acute coronary syndrome. The obtained results are included in the novel European Society of Cardiology guidelines on AF.

Key words: atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention, apixaban, AUGUSTUS.

Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia.

Relationships and Activities: none.

Pavlova T. V.* ORCID: 0000-0003-3301-1577, Duplyakova P. D. ORCID: 0000-0003-2773-1682, Shkaeva O. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-0209-2271, Krivova S. P. ORCID: 0000-0002-1100-3798.

*Corresponding author: ptvsam63@mail.ru

Received: 08.09.2020

Revision Received: 15.09.2020

Accepted: 18.09.2020

For citation: Pavlova T. V., Duplyakova P. D., Shkaeva O. V., Krivova S. P. Subanalysis of the AUGUSTUS trial. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4104. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4104

CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION IN THE TREATMENT OF BREATHING-RELATED SLEEP DISORDERS IN BARIATRIC PATIENTS

Bochkarev M. V.1, Medvedeva E. A.1, Shumeyko A. A.1, Korostovtseva L. S.1, Neimark A. E.1, Sviryaev Yu. V.1,2

Abstract

The article presents a non-systematic review of studies on breathing-related sleep disorders in patients with morbid obesity, and on the use of non-invasive ventilation in the pre-, peri-, and postoperative period of bariatric surgery, with an assessment of cardiovascular effects.

Key words: bariatrics, perioperative treatment, breathing-related sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP therapy, cardiovascular diseases.

Relationships and Activities: none.

1Almazov National Medical Research Center, St. Petersburg; 2I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Bochkarev M. V.* ORCID: 0000-0002-7408-9613, Medvedeva E. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-5130-5192, Shumeyko A. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-6274-5719, Korostovtseva L. S. ORCID: 0000-0001-7585-6012, Neimark A. E. ORCID: 0000-0003-4925-0126, Sviryaev Yu. V. ORCID: 0000-0002-3170-0451.

*Corresponding author: bochkarev_mv@almazovcentre.ru

Received: 18.07.2020

Revision Received: 21.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Bochkarev M. V., Medvedeva E. A., Shumeyko A. A., Korostovtseva L. S., Neimark A. E., Sviryaev Yu. V. Cardiovascular effects of non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of breathing-related sleep disorders in bariatric patients. Russian Journal of Cardiology. Education. 2020;25(9):4025. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4025

HIS BUNDLE PACING: A NEW LOOK AT THE METHOD

Prikhodko N. A., Lyubimtseva T. A., Gureev S. V., Lebedeva V. K., Lebedev D. S.

Abstract

His bundle pacing (HBP) implements physiological impulse propagation along the cardiac conduction system and can serve as an analogue of both right ventricular and biventricular pacing. This review highlights clinical anatomy issues related to HBP; the technique of lead implantation in the His position is considered. We also describe the electrophysiological basis of HBP, possibilities of lead extraction, indications for implantation, and prospects for further development of the technique. HBP is a promising direction in cardiology, which in the future may fundamentally change the algorithms for managing patients with heart failure and conduction disorders.

Key words: His bundle pacing, cardiac resynchronization therapy, selective His bundle pacing, non-selective selective His bundle pacing, pacing-induced cardiomyopathy.

Relationships and Activities: none.

Almazov National Medical Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Prikhodko N. A.* ORCID: 0000-0002-5304-8003, Lyubimtseva T. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-8651-7777, Gureev S. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-2416-5304, Lebedeva V. K. ORCID: 0000-0003-2495-3343, Lebedev D. S. ORCID: 0000-0002-2334-1663.

*Corresponding author: prihinn@yandex.ru

Received: 08.07.2020

Revision Received: 21.07.2020

Accepted: 01.08.2020

For citation: Prikhodko N. A., Lyubimtseva T. A., Gureev S. V., Lebedeva V. K., Lebedev D. S. His bundle pacing: a new look at the method. Russian Journal of Cardiology. 2020;25(S3):4002. (In Russ.) doi:10.15829/1560-4071-2020-4002

5 октября 2020 г.

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